2- Turkish Nouns
There are no different genders of nouns in Turkish language. Therefore learners do not have to struggle with remembering if a noun is masculine or feminine. Turkish language is a very systematic and organized after learning its fundamental building stones. Turkish, at the same time takes advantage of using different suffixes instead of using prepositions, conjunctions etc like in English.
2.1- Indefinite article “Bir”
The word “Bir” both means One and a/an. It can be used as an indefinite article (a/an) that precedes a noun and as a cardinal number in Turkish language. An indefinite article may be used before a singular noun unless a definite article is used just like in a grammatical English sentence. However it can not be considered as an imperative grammar rule that has to be applied all the time.
Although we should learn how to use the indefinite article “bir” in order to make grammatically correct sentences, the necessity and usage of indefinite article may differ in daily life and conversations.
Now, please have a look at the examples in the table below and practice pronouncing them.
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2.2- Singular Demonstrative Pronouns “Bu, Şu, O”
Demonstrative pronouns represent or stand in for a person, place or thing that must be pointed to. They may function as subjects, objects or objects of the preposition. They are widely used when referring to places, people or expressions. Demonstratives often accompany our gestures.There are three demonstrative pronouns that are used according to the distances that they point in Turkish
“Bu” (this) is generally used to point or refer the things that are close to you. “Bu” can be also used for the things that has just been mentioned in a conversation or a text.
“Şu”(that) must be used for the things at a considerable distance. Şu can be used to direct the listener’s attention towards a thing not previously mentioned during the conversation. But as soon as the listener notices the thing referred to, both of the speakers have to begin to use the demonstrative pronoun“Bu” .
Please be careful with using the demonstrative pronoun “Şu”, because sometimes “Şu” may have a slightly derogatory meaning in daily life.Thus, we should be careful when we put it in a sentence to point the people that we do not know. But the demonstrative pronoun “Şunlar” can be used for the things in any situation.
“O” (that) must be used for the things that are far away. This demonstrative pronoun is also used as a personal pronoun to say he, she, it in Turkish. The difference between “şu” and “o” can be hard to understand for the foreign people. Our suggestion is to use “o”. Native speakers use “şu” seldom. “O” can replace “şu” in every situation, bu do not try the reverse because “şu” cannot always replace “o”.
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2.3- Saying “What is this ?” ”Bu ne ?, Bu nedir ?” “What is that ?””O ne ?, O nedir ?”
There are two forms of saying “What is this” in Turkish language. In everyday conversation people generally say “Bu ne ?” which is informal and less polite than saying “Bu nedir ?”. The demonstrative pronoun “Bu” can be changed with “Şu or O” in order to say “What is that” “Şu ne” or “O ne” .
Now please have a look at the first three examples in the table below and create your own questions and answers putting the words in a correct order just like in the examples. As always please, do not hurry while you are pronouncing the sounds and do not let your brain interfere this process by listening to your own voice carefully.
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