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2.4- Making Turkish Nouns Plural with plurilazer suffixes “ler,lar”

There are two different suffixes that are added to the end of the nouns in order to pluralize them. These suffixes are chosen in accordance with Turkish vowel harmony rules. The suffixes “ler” and “lar” are added to the end of a noun according to its last vowel.

Eight Turkish vowels are divided into two groups as front vowels (dotted vowels) which are “E, İ, Ö, Ü” and back vowels (undotted vowels) which are “A, I, O, U” and this rule will be called as the First vowel harmony rule throughout these online grammar lessons. A Turkish noun is pluralized by adding the
pluralizer suffixes at the end of it. Turkish words whose last vowel is one of the vowels in front vowels group are pluralized by adding the suffix “-ler” and the words whose last vowel is one of the vowels in back vowels group are pluralized by adding the suffix “-lar”

Turkish vowel harmony rules are definitely the most improtant subject in Turkish grammar that must be learnt deeply at the beginning of Turkish language acqusition process. Now let’s have a look at the examples in the table below.

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Examples of Turkish plulars.

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2.5- Plural Demonstrative Pronouns “Bunlar, Şunlar, Onlar”

“Bunlar” (these) is generally used to point or refer the things that are close to you. “Bunlar” can be also used for the things that has just been mentioned in a conversation or a text.

“Şunlar”(those) must be used for the things at a considerable distance. Şunlar can be used to direct the listener’s attention towards the things not previously mentioned during the conversation. But as soon as the listener notices the things referred to, both of the speakers have to begin to use the demonstrative pronoun“Bunlar”

Please be careful with using the demonstrative pronoun “Şunlar”, because sometimes “Şunlar” may have a slightly derogatory meaning in daily life.Thus, we must be especially careful when we put it in a sentence to point the people that we do not know. But the demonstrative pronoun “Şunlar” can be used for the things in any situation.

“Onlar” (those) must be used for the things that are far away. This demonstrative pronoun is also used as a personal pronoun to “they” in Turkish. The difference between “şunlar” and “onlar” can be hard to understand for the foreign people. Our suggestion is to use “onlar”. Native speakers use “şunlar” seldom. “Onlar” can replace “şunlar” in every situation, bu do not try the reverse because “şunlar” cannot always replace “onlar”.

Bunlar, Şunlar and Onlar are almost always used with singular nouns when there are no adjectives in the sentences. Now, please have a look at the examples in the table below and practice pronouncing them.

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Plural demonstrative nouns in Turkish language
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2.6- Saying “What are these ?””Bunlar ne ?, Bunlar nedir ?”“What are those ?”“Onlar ne ?, Onlar nedir?”

There are two forms of saying “What are these” in Turkish language. In everyday conversation people generally say “Bunlar ne ?” which is informal and less polite than saying “Bunlar nedir ?”. The demonstrative pronoun “Bunlar” can be changed with “Şunlar or Onlar” in order to say “What are those” “Şunlar ne” or “Onlar ne”

Now please have a look at the first five examples in the table below and create your own questions and answers putting the words in a correct order in the table in the next table.

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